Unpaved Roads

Unpaved Roads

Considerations of Lowering Maintenance Standards of National Forest System Roads to Maintenance Level 2 pdf
The focus of this guide is on the safety aspects and considerations of lowering maintenance level (ML) 3, 4, or 5 National Forest System roads (NFS) to ML2. 

Dust Palliative Selection and Application Guide pdf
The purpose of this publication is to help practitioners understand and correctly choose and apply the dust palliative that is appropriate for their particular site, traffic conditions, and climate. In addition, this publication describes the expected performance, limitations, and potential environmental impacts of various palliatives. US Dept. of Agriculture and Forest Service

Economics of Upgrading an Aggregate Road pdf
A new report helps towns governments make policy decisions for maintaining and upgrading gravel roads. LRRB & MNDOT.

Environmentally Sensitive Material for Dirt and Gravel Roads URL 
This manual identifies, documents, and encourages the use of environmentally sensitive maintenance of dirt and gravel roads. The document provides insight into using natural systems and innovative technologies to reduce erosion, sediment, and dust pollution while more effectively and efficiently maintaining dirt and gravel roads and gives the users a "tool box" full of environmentally sensitive maintenance "tools" and practices. EPA.

Environmentally Sensitive Road Maintenance Practices for Dirt and Gravel Roads pdf
Over 1.6 million miles of dirt and gravel roads exist within the United States providing a vital part of the nation’s transportation system. Roads crisscross mountains, flat lands, and valleys intercepting streams, meadows, and riparian areas. The ecological effect a road has on the surrounding environment varies greatly depending on location, design, and maintenance. Roads can adversely affect the surrounding environment through erosion, and increased sediment delivery to streams, meadows, and riparian areas. Roads can intercept subsurface flows; increase hillslope drainage density through ditch lines and relief culverts; and create diversion potential at stream crossings. An environmentally sensitive road maintenance practice is a practice that when implemented reduces the adverse effect of a road on the environment by treating the cause of the problem and is in keeping with the natural landscape. The goal of this field guide is to provide examples of environmentally sensitive maintenance practices, which if implemented reduce erosion and sediment, maintain subsurface hydrologic connectivity, restore drainage density to more natural conditions, and eliminate diversion potential. Additionally environmentally sensitive maintenance practices reduce long term maintenance costs and lengthen maintenance cycles. To achieve this goal, the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, and Pennsylvania State University’s Center for Dirt and Gravel Roads, have established a simple protocol to help road managers and maintenance practitioners to: carefully assess road conditions; identify problems; determine cause; and select the appropriate environmentally sensitive practices that fit the site conditions.

Field Guide for Unpaved Rural Roads pdf
Safety of unpaved rural roads by describing the application of traffic control devices, geometric guidelines and management techniques. Wyoming LTAP.

Grader Operation Tips pdf
This publication has tips for cutting and laying out, as well as general tips for grader operations. Vermont LTAP.

Gravel Road Maintenance pdf 
Basic information about gravel roads, including grading procedures and grader operation. UNH T2 Center, 2001.

Gravel Roads: Maintenance and Design Manual
The purpose of this manual is to provide clear and helpful information for doing a better job of maintaining gravel roads. This manual is designed for the benefit of elected officials, managers, and grader operators who are responsible for designing and maintaining gravel roads. The information provided in this manual is as nontechnical as possible without sacrificing clear guidelines and instructions on how to do the job right. 

Gravel Road Maintenance: Meeting the Challengel 
Includes the Gravel Road Maintenance and Design Manual and an instructor's guide. SD LTAP. 

Low-Volume Roads
TRB’s Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 2203 is the first of three volumes that collectively present 90 technical papers pertinent to low-volume roads, 44 by authors from the United States and 46 by authors from 18 other countries. Volume 1 url, contains 27 papers that address environment; safety; design; and economics, finance, and planning aspects of low-volume roads. Volume 2 url, contains 32 papers that address maintenance, stabilization, and geotechnical engineering aspects of low-volume roads. Volume 3 URL, contains 31 papers that address materials, and pavement management aspects of low-volume roads.

Maintaining The Vermont Backroad pdf
This fact sheet illustrates a road maintenance program and maintenance recommendations for paved and unpaved backroads. Vermont LTAP.

Motor Grader Safety Manual PDF
This guide is for operating and maintenance personnel. It illustrates basic safety procedures.
Headquarters, Department of the Army.

Problems Associated with Gravel Roads PDF 
Overall environment of gravel roads; the materials used to surface them; the common surface defects-their causes, prevention, and correction; and the equipment and techniques used to repair and maintain gravel roads. IN LTAP.

Road Dust Control With Calcium Chloride pdf
This fact sheet informs about calcium chloride, and includes tips for road preparation, storage, safety and disposal, corrosion and equipment hazards. Vermont LTAP.

Soil and Water Road-Cibdition Index - Field Guide
This publication explains the pros and cons of different styles of unpaved roadways. Published by the US Department of Agriculture. 

Soils For Road Work pdf
This fact sheet identifies types of soil, soil properties, describes soil mixing and different kinds of gravel. Vermont LTAP.

Stabilization and Rehabilitation Measures for Low-Volume Forest Roads
This publication explains everything from problems that require quick rehabilitation, like erosion issues to surface and subsurface drainage issues, to more in depth solutions. Published by the US Department of Agriculture. 

Surface Aggregate Stabilization with Chloride Materials pdf
This publication provides Federal, State, county, and local road managers with information onthe performance and cost effectiveness of roadmixing high applications of calcium and magnesium chloride that are applied in a one-time construction process. US Department of Agriculture

The Basics of A Good Road pdf 
This fact sheet explains the ten commandments for good road, what goes into the making and maintaining of roads. Vermont LTAP.

To Pave or Not to Pave: Making Informed Decisions on when to Upgrade a Gravel Road pdf
Two key questions must be answered when developing a gravel road maintenance plan:

  1. What is the best way to maintain a gravel road?
  2. When should the roadway be upgraded to a paved surface?

These are not easy questions because many factors affect the answers. As noted above, the following two recent reports can be used to help decide when to upgrade a gravel road. University of Minnesota, LRRB, & MN DOT October, 2006.

When to Pave a Gravel Road (Streaming Video) url
Making policy decisions for maintaining and updating gravel roads. MN LTAP.